Astronomical observing

Full moon eclipse 9 november 2003

Night. Full silvery Moon illuminates terrain. On the sky nor cloudy. Only, bright stars on the sky with the natural fcompanion (satellite) of our planet. But, suddenly, something is changed in the look of the Moon. Its left edge becomes "is eaten", and with each minute this moon edge "is eaten" more and more. The Moon simply disappears from night skies. At first thought can will be shown that last hour for our the Moon, "end of light", which daily foreshadow astrologers. Begun a next moon eclipse, when Land barriers a Moon from the Sun and throws its shade on it. Usual astronomical phenomena known from deep antiquities. The First full moon eclipse is registered in china chronicles. By means of calculations to manage to calculate that it occur 29 january 1136 before. Else three full moon eclipses fixed in "Almagest" Klaudii Ptolemei (19 march 721 before, 8 march and 1 september 720 before). In histories are often described moon eclipses that much helps to install an exact date of one or another history event. For instance, general athenian army Никий scare beginning full moon eclipse, in armies began a panic that has brought about ruins athens.

Due to astronomical calculations to manage to install that this occur 27 august 413 before н. э. Other example. Full moon eclipse 1 march 1504 has renderred Christopher Columbus greater service. Its next expedition on the island Jamaica is renderred in the heavy position, products of feeding and drinking water were on the upshot, and people be hungry death. Attempts of Columbus to get a food beside local turkeys the end in vain. But Columbus knew that 1 march 1504 must occur a full moon eclipse, and under the evening it has warned chieftains lived on the island group that it steals beside them Moon, if he will refuse in providing the expeditions by products and water. As soon as has begun an eclipse, turkeys has coverred an indescribable terror. Products and water were immediately delivered, but chieftains on knees implored Columbus to return it a Moon Columbus, naturally, could not "refuse" in this request, and soon, on the completion of eclipse, Moon, to the delight of turkeys, once again light on the sky. How see, usual astronomical phenomena can be highly useful, but knowledge of astronomy to simply it is necessary travelliers.

As condition of coming the moon eclipses? Mechanism of coming the moon eclipses sufficiently forgive;pardon. Planets and their fcompanion (satellite)s reject shades. The Moon, moving on its орбите around the Land, passes such positions on orbit, when it can fall into the shade of the Land. If this happens, occurs in the full moon without fall, when Sun, Land and Moon become on one lines, under than Moon bases in the side opposite from the Sun. Average distance from the Land before the Moon forms 384400 km. But average length shades of the Land forms 1382000 km. Though length terrestrial shades is changed from 1359000 km., when Land in the perihelion and before 1405000 km., when Land in the aphelion, in any event it always more radius of orbit of the Moon. As A Result Moon, falling into the shade of the land during the full moon, is completely sunk in it, and approaches a full moon eclipse. Be a distance before the Moon more than 1405000 км., and we never did not be able to observe full and private dark eclipses of the Moon.

Drawing 1.

On the drawing 1 you may see a schematic scene of condition of coming a moon eclipse. Scale not kept. Seamingly, under such position a belongings full moon eclipses must occur monthly, since full moon cans be each month. But, alas, plane of moon orbit does not comply with the plane of terrestrial orbit, it is bent to planes of terrestrial orbit on 5 degrees 8 minutes 43,4 seconds at the average and so Moon in the majority of full moons passes above or below terrestrial shades.

Drawing 2.

Graphic this on the drawing 2. However all each 1/2 year Moon inheres approach nodes of orbit and exactly in such days at the full moon can approach a moon eclipse. Than closer Moon to the node of moon orbit, that more chances of coming a full moon eclipse. Otherwise approaches a private moon eclipse, which practically invisibly naked eyes. If Moon will be located on the distance 10-12 degrees from the moon node, the eclipses does not occur completely, otherwise eclipses possible only in the area near 22 degrees вблизи moon nodes. Ithaca, Moon falls into this area and coming a moon eclipse possible. What picture we will see, observing moon eclipse? How a moon eclipse looks, we can see on images, done during past moon eclipses. On data an foto are shown amateur photographies of moon eclipses of different years.

Drawing 3.

Drawing 4.

Drawing 5.

On drawings 3-5 shown photo Kozlovskiy A.N. done during observing a full moon eclipse 20 february 1989. On the drawing 3 shown Moon at the phase of eclipse 0,52. Photo is made фотоаппаратом "Zenith" (lens "Helios-44м" F=58мм, 1:2) at 14 o'clocks 23 minutes on a worldwide time. Film "Таsма" 65 Units. On drawings 4 and 5, photo - done by the still camera. On them shown a move of eclipse. On the first photo (first half of eclipse) initial exposure is made at 14 o'clocks 20 minutes on a worldwide time, full phase - at 15 o'clocks 10 minutes. On the second photo - the second half of eclipse. The First exposure is made at 16 o'clocks 17 minutes, last - at 17 o'clocks 23 minutes on a worldwide time. Both foto made camera "Smena" (F=40мм, 1:4,5), but mean time between exposures is 5 minutes. Film "Таsма" 65 Units. How see, not have even telescope, with the help of simplest camera, possible get an interesting снимки astronomical phenomenas.

Drawing 6.

Drawing 6 Drawing 6 shows a splendid photo of full moon eclipse 18-19 november 1975 during is packed phases doing Dennis de Chikko.

Drawing 7.

Drawing 7 On the drawing 7 - a first full eclipse of the Moon in the new age. Foto Made Kostulev В. in the night with 9 for 10 january 2001.

Eclipse, which will occur 9 november 2003, is a repetition through сарос (cycle of repetitions of eclipses equal 6585 days or 18 years 11 days) full moon eclipse from 28 octobers 1985 with the maximum phase 1,07. Forthcoming moon eclipse will be with the smaller phase, equal 1,02, but, however, eclipse will be full. Eclipse will occur in the second half of night that not at all suitable for observing, but true amateurs of astronomy, can stop only dull weather. On the drawing 8 shown card of moon eclipse 9 november 2003. On this card well seen that eclipse will be seen completely on Russia west half only. On the east half of Russia a Moon will call at for the horizon in different phases of eclipse, but in the Seaside, Magadan area, on Kamchatka and Chukotka will not be seen at all. Marks a cancelling a position of the most large cities of Russia and other.

Drawing 8.

General type of eclipse possible to examine on the drawing 9. Scheme is brought for Moscow, but equitable for the whole territory, with which will be seen eclipse, with that difference that height of the Moon on the horizon in different points will be different. Time is given Moscow.

Drawing 9.

Private eclipse will begin at 2 o'clocks 33 minutes at the height of the Moon on the horizon in Moscow 41 degrees. The Second contact or beginning of full eclipse will occur at 4 o'clocks 07 minutes at the height of the Moon on the horizon in Moscow 30 degrees. Full maximum phase approaches at 4 o'clocks 18 minutes, height - 29 degrees; end of full eclipse - at 4 o'clocks 30 minutes, height - 27 degrees; end of private eclipse - at 6 o'clocks 03 minutes, height - 15 degrees. General length will form 3 hours 30 minutes and this not the most long-lasting eclipse of first decennial event of new age. The most long-lasting moon eclipse of decennial event will occur 4 march 2007 and its length will form 3 hours 39 minutes,large on a time this eclipse the whole for 9 minutes.

Drawing 10.

On the drawing 10 presented type of the sky for Moscow at the time of 4 hours 19 minutes on a moscow time. On the drawing seen upstaging Moon, closed on the half by the terrestrial shade. The Moon bases in Aries. Above inheres a concourse a Pleiades (М45). Will Interesting control an amount of visible stars in Pleiades before the eclipse and during the full eclipse. Under different conditions in Pleiades by naked eyes possible to notice from 6 before 11 stars. But how much will manage to notice You?

Drawing 11.

Drawing 12.

On drawings 11 and 12 increased shown phases of eclipse for 3 hours 10 minutes before the full eclipse and at 5 o'clocks 20 minutes after the full eclipse, accordingly. Shown direct type, in the telescope a scene will be overwinded. Interesting event will occur the packed phase during. Upstaging Moon will coverred star 8,5 starry values HIP 13533. On drawings 13 and 14 shown moments of covering and openings of star, which will occur at 4 o'clocks 18 minutes and 4 hours 47 minutes accordingly.

Drawing 13.

Drawing 14.

Such a will be a type of moon eclipse when observing from Land. But as will look an eclipse from Moons? The Carry on our natural fcompanion (satellite) in the spot situated in upstaging Moon centre.

Drawing 15.

On the drawing 15 seen black disk of the Land, here is-here is ready to close a Sun. On the Moon at given time approaches "new Earth", similarly phase of new moon for the Moon. Visible from Moons a disk of the Land much more, than visible from Land a disk of the Moon and so Land always completely closes a Sun. Remind that on the Land can be and ring solar eclipses, when visible disk of the Moon less solar, as was observed during the solar eclipse 31 mays of this.

Drawing 16.

But if we a raise on the north pole of the Moon, we will see a necessary picture (drawing 16). Here we see a half of refreshing part of Moons, and upstaged by half by the terrestrial shade. Such rare picture - fourth part of the visible disk of the Moon could see the spacemans, ing on the north pole of the Moon during this eclipses.

Drawing 17.

The Carry now in opposite from the Land and Moon a side and will look, how an eclipse on the background of the Land looks. Drawing 17. On the foreground we see a Land, turned to us day side. Practically the whole days side of the Land on the given moment "is occupied" Pacific ocean, i.e. given eclipses the most favourable for observing a majority of inhabitants of the whole Land. On the back plan seen upstaging Moon. Like picture will possible observe in the strong telescope with Mercury and Venus, which presently inhere in join with the Sun. From Venus this type will observe much harder, since it inheres in upper join with the Sun (for the Sun when observing from Land), unlike Mercury, which inheres in lower join (before the Sun when observing from Land).

Drawing 18.

On the drawing 18 we can see a type of the Moon from Mars under good zoom. Through several minutes terrestrial shade will begin its motion on surfaces of the Moon and out Moon from Mars on three with the half of hour. Such a forthcoming eclipse 9 november 2003. Hopes that amateurs of astronomy find for itself in this description useful and interesting for itself information.

Methods of observing the moon eclipses will be described in the following article. Keep A Check On renovations.

Respectfully yours. The Amateur of astronomy Kozlovskiy Alexander.  Home Russian        Page created 23.09.2003

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